Monday, November 07, 2005

Vaangithaa, Vaangithaaren (eq. to Trick or treat).

Info: the next day to Diwali day is (was?) celebrated as muthaalamman festival, a festival of local Goddess, Muthaalamman.

Senthil is wearing a mask. I am little shy to put the mask on and not sure why should I do it. I don’t do things that I don’t understand. Senthil is all that “enjoy” type and I am all that “why” type. So, there we are Senthil with his mask on and I, with my face as my face. The main point is to show our new clothes to everyone. All our elders give money. Its collection time!!! Grinning from ear to ear, we both depart. We are holding a plate with thiruneeru (ash used in prayers, also applied on the forehead, similar to bindi, except that it is applied in a rectangular shape) and some coins Chithi gave us just to fool others that our collection has started already. Actually we don’t need to fool anyone. Maattukkaara Paattaiyaa (the grandfather who has bulls and cows) certainly will give us money whether or not we have collected money from somebody else already, or, whether or not we are wearing new clothes. We just have to ask him. But we like to have that “fooling” money in our plate. It makes us happy. It makes us feel that we have already collected some money. We run straight to maattukkaara paattaiyaa’s house. Paatti and paattaiyaa welcome us laughing and smiling and so much noise in their house too. “Vaangithaa, vaangitharen”. Senthil shouts from behind the mask. “Eh, look, Senthil and Latha are here. Bring that money”. Karuvaayan chiththappa comes out. “Eh, you have to say it otherwise we won’t give you any money”. Senthil shouts with so much joy, “vaangithaa, vaangithaaren”. I am there standing, bending sideways, smiling and just looking at them. “No, no, you have to say too. Where is your mask?”, Pattaiyaa interferes, “eh, do not talk to a girl child like that. She doesn’t have to wear mask or say anything. Didn’t you hear her brother saying? His “vaangithaa vaangitharen” includes her too”. Chiththappa doesn’t give up. “No, no. If senthil says, he gets the money. Look at him, he is wearing the mask too. I won’t give money to Latha, she is not wearing mask, nor is she saying “vaangithaa, vaangithaaren”. “Didn’t I say not to talk to our girl child like that? What are you thinking of her? She is from our family. She is brought up with so much culture. Did you think she will go around and shout in front of others houses for money? Did you think she will put on the mask like a clown? It is ok for a boy. That is why senthil is wearing mask. Senthil is the man of their house. He is taking care of her. He is going with her. When he is there, it is for both of them and he always includes her. “Chiththappa, look, I am wearing new clothes”. I spin full in one go and show him my new skirt, grinning ear to ear. Senthil is jumping out of excitement. “Chiththappa, look, look, I am wearing new clothes too”. We get good collection there, as paataiyaa, paatti, and three chiththappas give us money separately. We run straight back to our house to show our collection. Mother tells us where to go next and our day continues. We come back home after visiting all the houses. It was a good-collection day.

28 comments:

sudha said...

have never heard of this tradition -- interesting !!

Premalatha said...

Hi Sudha,

I think this is very "local" thing. I am not sure it is still practised in my place.

Actaully, grown-up girls (but unmarried), play "kolattam" and collect money on the same day. that needs a group, practise and rehearsals. I never got a chance to do "kolattam".

:)

sudha said...

i have never seen kolaatam except in movies :-) ...that should be fun to watch if not do..

do you have any idea ...why they say "vaangithaa , vaangitharen"?

Premalatha said...

i have never seen kolaatam except in movies :-) ...that should be fun to watch if not do..

Oh that is lovely to watch. All girls wearing half saree go around in groups to all houses, play kolaattam rhythmically singing song themselves, it is a lovely sight. As soon I finished my rounds I used to sit outside with coins in hand to watch this kolaattam and give them money. I like kolaattam.

do you have any idea ...why they say "vaangithaa , vaangitharen"?

Nope. That's why I didn't say it. lol.

Dubukku said...

lovely post. Your narration is very nice. Though am very close to villages, never heard of this tradition.

Kollatam - have seen a lot and have helped organising that too in our town. We do that for Aadi perukku in our place.

Premalatha said...

Hi Dubukku,

Thanks.

Also, there is another thing, which is actually the main thing of that day, is that, They worship a temp-idol, made of clay, of Muthaalamman which later on was dipersed in a pond, following a procession. similar to Ganesh sathurthi in maharashtra.

Michelle said...

I enjoyed this story. I'm begining to feel like I know your family. :)

Now, who is Muthaalamman exactly? What is She goddess of? I think you said "she". I hope I'm right!

Premalatha said...

Hi Michelle,

I think she (yes, you are right), is a tribal Goddess. She might be more of a "Kannada" goddess, as my village has a good kannada (another state, another language, subdivision of Tamil-language-group, north to Tamil nadu), influence. Also, IIRC, the procession used to be carried out by the kannada group (a big kannada community live in my village).

Michelle said...

Thanks prema

It reminds me how they keep finding extra gods/goddesses for the ancient Celts. A similar situation where every group and area have their own "favourite" deities.

It also reminds me of my Catholic aunt who always knew exactly which saint to pray to for any given problem. She could list someone to take care of anything from lost objects to sick pets! And in Catholic Europe every town and village would have it's "patron saint" or favourite saint as well.

WA said...

Wow, so nicely written Premalatha. Such lovely tradition, whereabouts are you from?

Premalatha said...

Hi Uma (WA),

Thanks.

I am from a place called Kombai. It is in the foothills of Western Ghats. nearer to Thekkadi/Cumbum/Theni..

I am sure you know Ilayaraja's place, Pannaipuram. Pannaipuram is a small village nearer to Kombai. In fact Ilayaraja studied in Kombai school as pannaipuram did not have school during his time.

Balaji Viswanath said...

is a tribal Goddess. She might be more of a "Kannada" goddess

You're correct... she is a "Kannada" tribal Goddess... In Bangalore we have a township (Muthaalamman Nagar) by her name near to my area... will check it out more about her once I am back to Bangalore.

vikram kombai said...

hi this vikram from kombai..........its very nice to hear my native place story

Premalatha said...

kombai-ya?

enna vayasu?

why your url is not working?

Anonymous said...

Hey who created this page, really exiting!!!!!!!!!!

Thanks a lot

Gobi.(Pannaipuram)

msgobinathan@gmail.com

Anonymous said...

Hi Nice to read about my Grandma's place in net. I have attended that function and quite interesting to see and enjoy.

Mahesh said...

Hi Prema,

Good to hear about my hometown special in this forum.

Very nice...

Mahesh said...

You can get one more info about Kombai from my URL.

...

phantom363 said...

as i kid, i used to thrill in watching my girl relatives with their pattu paavadais, doing a spin, and sitting down in a baloon of air. simple thrills. even now brings a smile when i think of it.:)

same thing goes for kolattam. my sister used to have a group and kolattam was a regular affair. interestingly, after marriage she moved to gujarat. husband and wife took up dhandiya, same as our kolattam. :)

talk of village gods: in my grand parents' town, it was kottakkal bhagavathi. they had an annual festival, called thaalipeeli, where for that day, virgins went around the bhaghavathi amman's praharam with a whole bunch of stuff including veppalai. unique mosaics of india, all separated and interrelated at the same time. :)

good stuff...

The Visitor said...

Good old Paattaiya :)
Sometimes I wonder if feminism, as visualized today makes sense. There has been some amount of supression of women in the past, but there were also compensations, in the form of protections, regard etc.

The kannada community there, were the goudas or vokklaiya goundrs right?

My personal opinion is that the non-tamil communities in tamilnadu integrated well into tamil culture and society, so much that they would probably consider themselves as tamils.

@Michelle - There is a concept of kula deivam or family diety for groups of people, it might be similar to that of patron saints or personal deities.

Premalatha said...

but there were also compensations, in the form of protections, regard etc.

Wrong. We can protect ourselves, same as you can protect yourselves.

The Visitor said...

LOL@prema
We can protect ourselves, same as you can protect yourselves.

The Visitor said...

Have you read Hiphop grandmom's posts on feminism? I would love to see your responses to her latest post Do we love our women.

Premalatha said...

Vistior,

I am not a feminist, same as you are not a menist(?). :D

There are some feminists, some are authoritative, some I like and some I think are fanatics. (one feminist I certainly like is the tamilpunkster). Directing your question at the "feminists" would give you a better answer on feminism rathan than asking me. I am no way a feminist. Nothing like tham. ;)

Will certainly read her (grandma's)post though.

Premalatha said...

Visitor,

I don't agree with her.
I don't want to post it there.
:)

Anonymous said...

The most followed Folk Deity of South India Sudalai Madan also Sudaleswaran or Madasamy is a regional Tamil male deity who is popular amongst the least Sanskritized social groups of South India, particularly Tamil Nadu.
Aliases
· Sudalai Maadan
· Sudalai Mada Sami
· Sudaleshwaran
· Madasamy
· Maasana Muthhu
· Mundan Sami
· Irulappa Sami
· Mayandi
God of the disposed
He is usually considered to be the caste deity of Konar, Thevar, Paraiyar, Nadar and other castes found in the extreme south of Tamil Nadu. He is very popular in the Tirunelveli and Kanyakumari districts. Shree Sudalai Madan swamy is also called Maasanamuthu or Mundan.
Esakkiyamman
The Esakkiyamman worship is followed where the Madan temples are predominant. Esakki Amman is worshipped for good causes, such as for child birth, for good character in children, for a better society, etc.
Story of Arichandran
Harichandran is revered by all communities for his honesty and his adherence to only the truth at all stages of his life.
Maasana Muthu
Harichandran is also worshipped as Masanamuthu in the Thiruchendur and Thirunelveli districts.
Katterum Perumal
The son of Harichandran, revives after regaining his life from his own funeral pyre, and is worshipped as Katterum Perumal in the Kanyakumari and Thirunelveli districts.

Rituals and priests
Most Sudalai Madan (also referred as Irulappa samy or Mayandi samy) temples are officiated by non-Brahmin priests. Amongst Paraiyar, the priests are called Valluvar. His name suggests an association with death and cemeteries. Sudalai Madan in offered (or sacrificed) birds and goats by his devotees, unlike in the Sanskritized Hindu temples.
Sudalai Maadan, is one among the 21 sub-folk deity of the Ayyanar-Sastha clan of worship and is considered as the god of the graveyard. In the Sastha-Ayyanar temples and shrines, the god (Ayyanar) is surrounded by at least 21 other deities, among which the important sub-deities are the Karuppa samy (Karuppanar, being the oracle or the Kodangi or the Shamam who resolves the community problems), Sudalai Mada samy and other subordinates, who help him carry out his duties to protect the local community and the village. The village folk believe in these Gods for solving the local community and locality problems and do not believe the astrological timing or the ominous signs or in heaven and hell.
Mayana Pujai is offered as a special ritual for the Sudalai Maadan God.
Vijayalakshmi Navaneethakrishnan, a professor in the Department of Folk Arts at the Madurai Kamaraj University (MKU) says
The traditions and ethics set by our forefathers have positive values like humaneness, love, brotherhood and discipline. "Every aspect of our ancient culture has its own objective. Each custom has been carefully codified. Apart from spiritual aspect, even personal habits have been welldesigned." She lists out various the nomenclatures of the `Karuppannasamy' (Ondi Karuppu, Nochi Karuppu,....the list seems to be endless), the art of `kolam', the benefits of regional-specific patterns of prayers and worship. All testify her in-depth knowledge of the overall spiritual, cultural and traditional systems that prevailed in the various parts of Tamil Nadu.
Her performances on stage thus are not just mere entertainment shows, but an attempt to trace the rich cultural heritage of the folk scenario. She relates the symbolic significance behind each custom and helps the audience to understand it. She describes with vigour and expressiveness, the way the `Sudalayandi', the God of the Ashes as he walks in the darkness holding a torch, from his fort to the crematorium to cleanse the place of ashes and impurities. The faith in Sudaliyandi was symbolic of the concern that the ancient population had for the environment- she clarifies.
Sudalai Maadan, also finds a reference in the Saivite literature (Sudalai podi poosiya, yen ullam kavar kalvan). In the folk tradition, the deities converse with the oracle and send across their messages to the devotees.Sudalai Maadan relishes meat and arrack and hence He is an irredeemable carnivorous god. However, in the Kanyakumari district, Sanskritisation is going on at a feverish pace in almost every village, especially in the trading Nadar community. The temples of folk deities are fast changing and replicas of Sanskritised temples with the traditional Gopuram and the Vimanam over the sanctum sanctorum are coming up everywhere.
“This is totally against folk tradition".
Women deities like Mutharamman and Santhana Mariamman have temples but they will not fall into the category of the regular temples that we see for the 'bigger' Hindu gods. Actually these temples would look more like the humble dwellings you see in our villages. As far as Sudalai Maadan is concerned, he never had a roof over his head,” explains Prof. A.K.Perumal, an authority on folk culture.
Another aspect of Sanskritisation is the act of dispensing with animal sacrifice. “Animal sacrifice was common in all Mutharamman temples. But today it has been stopped. It is still being practised only in Sudalai Maadan temples” points out A.K. Perumal.
The images or the idols of the village deities are also changing. “We used the paste of lime and sand to make these idols. Now granite idols are installed so that Abishekams (bathing the idol in water, milk &/ or sandal paste) can be performed on them,” points out A.K. Perumal.
Due to this Sanskritisation process in the Kanyakumari district, folk gods are being fast replaced by Vedic gods. Vedic and folk gods are poles apart. Except for the Brahmins, every other community has temples dedicated to their favourite folk gods and goddesses. Madan is a generic name and there are a whole lot of Maadans, like Sudalai Madan, Pula Madan and Esaki Madan. Goddesses include Mutharamman, Sandhana Mari Amman, Muppidaari, Kali and Durgai. The priest of the temple is usually from the community that owns the temple.
These deities are different from the vedic ones. They are gruesome and evoke fear in the minds of their devotees; not love. They have to be propitiated at regular intervals. Festivals are organised twice a year and animal sacrifices are an integral part of these celebrations. The sacrifices are known as Muppali (i.e., killing of three animals, generally goats, fowls and pigs).
The idols are made of sand and lime. Even the temples that house such deities look quite ordinary, a simple structure under tiled roofs, with nothing to distinguish them from the devotees or the village residents. In many Sudalai Madan temples even the roofs are a luxury. There is no such thing as a Sanctum sanctorum in these temples, clearly differentiating them from the Brahminical concept of ritual purity.
But all this is changing now. Sudalai Madan, his fraternal deities and their temples are undergoing a dramatic transformation, signalling the arrival of the Brahminical culture.
The irony is that today concrete miniatures of vedic temples, with gopuram and a vimana above the sanctum, are coming up everywhere. Granite images of gods and goddess are replacing the structures erected from sand and lime. The purpose of installing a granite structure is to perform abishekam (ritual pouring of liquids) as done in vedic temples
Once the construction of a new temple is over, Kumbabhisekam or a consecration ceremony, is done by the vedic scholars, totally alien to the folk gods and those that worship them. The gods and goddesses who once evoked so much fear are now referred with a prefix Arul migu (or merciful), a misnomer.
In Folk culture, Kapalika means "bearer of the skull-bowl", and has reference to Lord Bhairava’s vow to take the Kapala vow. As penance for cutting off one of the heads of Brahma, Lord Bhairava became an outcast and a beggar. In this guise, Bhairava frequents waste places and cremation grounds, wearing nothing but a garland of skulls and ash from the pyre, and unable to remove the skull of Lord Brahma fastened to his hand. The skull hence becomes his begging-bowl, and the Kapalikas (as well as the Aghoris of Varanasi) supposedly use skulls as begging bowls and as drinking and eating vessels, in imitation of Shiva.
Although information on the Kapalikas is primarily to be gleaned from classical Sanskrit sources, where Kapalika ascetics are often depicted as depraved villains in drama, it appears that this group worshipped Lord Shiva in his extreme form, Bhairava, the ferocious. For the outsiders, They are also often falsely accused of having practiced ritual human sacrifices due to the system getting into the hands of vested greedy persons behind wealth. Ujjain is alleged to have been a prominent centre of this sect.
The Kapalikas may also have been related to the Kalamukhas (”black faces”) of medieval South India). Moreover, in modern Tamilnadu, certain Shaivite cults associated with the goddess Ankalaparameshwari, Irulappa sami, and Sudalai Madan, are known to practice or have practiced ritual cannibalism, which is not exactly ture, and to center their secretive rituals around an object known as a Kapparai (Tamil: “skull-bowl,” derived from the Sanskrit "kapaala"), a votive device garlanded with flowers and sometimes adorned with faces, which is understood to represent the begging-bowl of Shiva. Ankaala parameshwari : a goddess of Tamilnadu, her myths and cult need to be studied as parallel to Sudalai Madan worship. To understand that it is connencted with Cannibalism, the reality of Sudalai Madan worship need to realised through the group worship where they consider as family deity for several generations in South Tamilnadu.
Outside India
The deity is also popular amongst certain segments of the Tamil diaspora in Sri Lanka, Malaysia, RĂ©union and the French overseas territories in the Caribbean sea.
External links
· Sudalai Madan temple and animal sacrifice
· Sudalai Madan amongst Indian origin Tamils
· South Indian Deities And Their Relative Following in Tamil Nadu
· Secularism and Religious Violence in Contemporary India
· Madurai Veeran
·
1. Village gods and heroes - worship of Hero Stones in Tamil Nadu, India

UNESCO Courier, March, 1984 by R. Nagaswamy
Village gods and heroes - worship of Hero Stones in Tamil Nadu, India

UNESCO Courier, March, 1984 by R. Nagaswamy
Potters enjoy a special status in Tamil Nadu.
Unlike potters in other parts of India they wear the “sacred thread” of the “twice-born” (see caption page 13), which elsewhere is reserved for higher castes, and they frequently act as unofficial guardians of the smaller village temples. This hereditary task enhances their standing in the community and gives them the material advantage of a share in the offerings made to the gods of meat, fruit and money. Although their main activity is the making of pots and similar domestic utensils, Tamil potters are famed for making the largest terra-cotta statues in the world. Figures of horses, which can be as much as seven metres in height, are much in demand as offerings, especially to the god Ayanar. They are believed to serve as chargers for his warriors when they make their nocturnal patrols to keep demons away from the villages.
Terra-cotta images of popular deities (wise men or heroes) are also sometimes of monumental size, although in recent years these have tended to be made of brick and cement. Traditional methods are still used, however, for small or medium-sized ex voto objects or statues offered to a deity–a statue of a child in thanks for its birth or recovery from sickness; models of feet, hands or other limbs or parts of the body, for recovery from injury or illness; even of animals (usualy cows and more rarely dogs and cats). The presentation of a statue to a temple often involves the performance of quite complicated rites, but, even for the most humble votive offering, the critical moments is the placing in position by the potter of the eyes, the final, essential, life-giving gesture before installation in the temples.

Although it is the monumental architecture of India’s classical temples which usually overwhelms the visitor, it is the country’s folk temples, several times greater in number, that reflect the living faith of the people.
India’s village temples owe their origin to a belief in the various manifestatiions–malevolent and benevolent–of the spirit of nature, and to a conviction that God dwells in all animate and inanimate phenomena–trees, rivers, mountains, water-tanks, the sea, lightning and the wind.
They are also connected to the fertility cult so widely prevalent throughout the ancient world. Faith in the Mother Goddess led to the personification of every village settlement in a grama devata, a village Goddess who protects the villagers, decides their fate and guides them like a fond mother.
Another concept that has made an important contribution to the development of village Gods is the worship of heroes who laid down their lives for the sake of their country or community. These heroes were commemorated and worshipped by the erection of Hero Stones or Memorial Stones, thousands of which are found in Tamil Nadu and other parts of India.
The erection of Hero Stones and the adoration of the dead hero as the saviour spirit of the community may be considered as an extension of the prehistoric cult of erecting megalithic tombs. The Hero-Stones are in the form of a dolmen with three upright slabs erected in the form of a small chamber on the back slab, facing the front. The representation of the hero on the slab takes various forms. The simplest shows him in the act of fighting with a spear, or bnow and arrow.
In a number of cases the event relating to the death of the hero, the period and the people who erected the stone are recorded in the local language. In Tamil Nadu over 600 inscribed memorials dating from the fourth century A.D. almost until the present day have recently been found.
It is necessary to know something about Hero Stones in order to understand the social background of the village temples. Often the Stones stand beneath shady trees in simple surroundings. Long swords, spears, or tridents are placed in front of them, as well as terra-cotta horses painted in folk style. It was believed that the spirit of a hero resided forever in each monument, bestowing benefactions on the community. The spirit was dreaded, loved, adored and worshipped and was considered the saviour of the community.
Some regional as opposed to village deities found in Tamil Nadu arose from the cult of a hero’s death. One of them, Maduraiviran, who is worshipped in central Tamil Nadu, was a seventeenth-century hero who defended the country valiantly and was later put to death by its ruler after a love affair. The romantic element and the hero’s tragic end at the hands of the very ruler he had fought for created such an aura around him that soon his spirit was recognized as a most powerful divinity and his temple was found in every village. The most important feature of his temple is the huge figure of a horse placed either in front of him or carrying him. People believe that his spirit ascends the horse after dusk, and goes around the village protecting the people at night.
Another factor in the development of village temples was the veneration of women who died in heroic circumstances. One such death that was popular was that of the chaste wife who committed sati, that is, she died voluntarily on her husband’s funeral pyre. Recorded evidence for such customs is available from the beginning of the Christian era. The spirits of women who die in such circumstances are said to be very powerful, protecting the community and also severely punishing wrongdoers.
In all these instances of the worship of the dead as the village gods, the offering consists of all types of food and other things that had pleased the dead person while he was alive. Offerings of animal flesh and liquor are quite common models of worship. Animals sacrifice is often misunderstood and blown up out of proportion. It arises out of the eating habits of the people. The simple concept behind this offering is that whatever one eats is first ceremoniously offered to the deity. The cock, chicken and goat are offered in the presence of the deity, cooked and then consumed by the worshipper. There are some temples where even specially prepared cigars are offered.
Festivals are conducted annually for the village gods or are specially arranged either to ward off natural calamities, epidemics or threats to the community which are of human origin. They are celebrated with great pomp and show. The presence of the deity is felt so powerfully that to utter a lie in its presence, it is believed, brings calamity to the teller. Many disputes, such as proof of adultery, repudiation of loans received and other such matters are settled even to this day in the village temple. In many villages in the interior there is no need for civil or criminal courts to decide the nature of punishments. The temple of the village god, the impersonal spirit that permeates and rules the society is sufficient to take care of evildoers.
The village deity wards off all diseases. If a person is affected in any part of his body, or the whole, he prays to the deity for a cure and offers a replica of the afflicted member made of terra-cotta, wood or metal. Or a full terra-cotta figurine representing a human form is made and placed with devotion in front of the deity. For happy child birth, a terra-cotta figure of a child in a cradle is offered. To ward off cattle diseases, large or small clay figures are likewise placed in the temple. Several hundred such terra-cotta figurines can be seen in front of many village temples. And on all such occasions the folk artist (mainly the village potter) is honoured with new cloth, garlands of flowers, special food and money. In fact the cult of the village god was mainly responsible for sustaining and fostering folk arts.
The cult of the village gods has also been a fount of inspiration for folk music and dance. Several hundred folk ballads and songs are connected with the adoration of village heroes, and during festivals they are sung by village minstrels for hours–sometimes throughout the night. So spirited are these folk songs that even people who are in their houses rush towards the sound of the music in a trance and sometimes thousands of people can be seen on these occasions, marching, singing and dancing.
This expression of devotion often takes the form of walking barefoot over fire, piercing one’s body with decorated needles or lances, or carrying firepots in one’s arms. Both men and women take part in such devotions.
The conservatism of the village folk is revealed in their forms of dress, ornamentation and mode of singing, which can be traced back several centuries. For example, in the Alagar festival held in Madurai during March and April, several thousand villagers dress themselves in colourful costumes, and wear dresses and ornaments similar to those that can be seen in sixteenth-century paintings and sculptures. Another festival in Farur attracts several thousand men, who dress as women and move through the streets singing and dancing. In another interesting festival, held in a suburb of Madras, several men and women clad in neem leaves circumambulate the temple of the village goddess several times. The fact that such customs–referred to in literature at the beginning of the Christian era–have survived to this day, very near the capital of the State, shows the powerful hold these faiths have over the people.
Sometimes such folk beliefs and customs are superimposed on the classical temple. There is a celebrated temple at Alagar Koil near Madurai where worship is performed by orthodox Vishnavite Brahmins according to classical rites. In the entrance tower of the temple is the figure of a folk god, “Karuppan of the steps”. The Karuppan, the spirit of the hero who guarded the temple and lost his life when defending it from robbers, is held in greater veneration by the village people than the main classical deity, Vishnu. When the annual festival for Vishnu is celebrated, several million people assemble to adore both Vishnu and the Karappan. Such a superimposition of folk customs, music and dance on classical temples can be observed in many places and seems, at least for the casual spectator, to abolish the dividing line between the folk temple and the classical temple.
However, there is one essential difference between the classical temple and the folk temple. In the former there is a trained family of worshippers, the priests, who perform the daily acts of worship and the rites of periodical festivals as prescribed. In other words, there is an intermediary between the devotee and the divine. The priest’s presence is accepted as a necessity; he can perform acts of worship while the rest of the community pursues its daily tasks and goes to the temple only when in need.
In the village temples communication between the devotee and the deity is direct and so the feeling of attachment is more intimate. The divine spirit is always present in the village temple and anyone can go and worship directly. Whatever the offering, or whatever the form in which it is made, the village god is pleased. This is why the village temples remain so popular.
COPYRIGHT 1984 UNESCO
COPYRIGHT 2004 Gale Group

vergile said...

Hey Guys,

Have you really heard of the god maadan,,,

He is one of the powerful god in India.. You don't believe this many people think that its all story and its not true,,

One thing about him if you pray him if you any thing he will be with you ,

If you leave any funny comment on him you will face the consequences form the second the words comes from you mouth. you know he drinks blood in grave yard but also he will drink blood of people who dont take him a serious god,,

Beware of him this is my true experience i have got in my life and still suffering with it

Anonymous said...

hi guys &girls

nice to see you all. there are number of studies in this area carriedout by folklorists and anthropologists at regional, national and international level. To know more do keep in touch.

Jey